Primary and secondary markets

The London Stock Exchange performs two vital roles to encourage investors to invest in industry. The first is the operation of a primary market. This is where companies sell shares to investors and then use the proceeds in their businesses. Launched by Prime Minister of India. This is scheme is for girl child. If you are looking for more information on Sukanya Samriddhi Account click here. Stock markets also provide a secondary market where shares are traded between investors. An efficient and trustworthy secondary market is needed to encourage investors to buy shares in the primary market. Investors like to know that there is a place they can go to sell shares quickly, cheaply and without having to reduce the price, that is, to sell at the going rate. In other words, investors need a liquid market. A liquid market is one where there are numerous competing buyers and sellers allowing the outcomes of many buy and sell orders to set the market price. It is one where there is so much activity that the sale of 50,000 shares in a day would not cause the price to fall: the market would quickly absorb the shares.

The market also needs to be a fair game (or a level playing field) and not a place where some investors, brokers, fund raisers or financiers are in a position to profit unfairly at the expense of other participants. This means, for instance, that insider dealing is prohibited, that is, company officers or others with private knowledge do not use that knowledge to trade in the company's shares. Brokers who act for shareholders are well regulated so that they act in the interest of investors. Market makers, who stand ready to buy and sell shares from investors on their own behalf in the stock exchange, follow strict codes of behaviour. It is a market that is well regulated to avoid abuses, negligence and fraud in order to reassure investors who put their savings at risk. Furthermore, investors need information on companies and share price activity so stock exchanges insist on minimum standards of information flow from companies and help disseminate company announce-ments. They also publish prices at which trading occurred and other share trading data (e.g. volume of trades).

A good secondary market allows the separation of long-term investment in real assets by firms and short-term investment by check aadhar card status shareholders in financial assets called ordinary shares. The English language is often inadequate, and here is a case in point. The word `investment' is used for two purposes. Companies invest in real assets that range from buildings and machinery to intangibles such as patents, brands and copyrights. This is productive investment that adds to the output of an economy. However, investment in the form of buying shares in the secondary market, from another investor, is not necessarily going to put more money into wealth-creating assets. It is simply the transfer of cash from one investor, and the ownership of the shares from the other. Then again, without a good secondary market, people will invest less in the primary market and less productive real investment will take place. Universal Joint Manufacturer in India

be different depending on the specific country in which the phone is roaming. For instance, as noted above a GSM world phone is multi-band capable of operating in the 19GOMHz band for North America as well as the 900/1800MHz bands for Europe and other countries. A multi-band phone, in other words, is capable of switching between radio frequencies when necessary. Recent advances in the design of mobile phones are making these subtle distinctions increasingly less important, as new models are introduced with both multi-mode and multi-band capabilities, including ones that operate on both CDMA and GSM networks.

Digital networks are more secure, they are more efficient, consume less power, allow for smaller handsets, and they provide high quality voice service plus new data services at better prices than their analogue counterparts. But looking back at the period between about 1995 and 2000, it is possible to see that the success of the second generation mobile phone trace mobile number current location is much more than a technical achievement_ During this period in history the mobile phone was also embraced as something ofa cultural icon, a fashion item and a personal trusted device, No longer the black brick with an antenna stuck in the top, the mobile phone was now an object of mass consuniption that -would set into motion an upheaval in the telecom sector —one that very few experts saw coming and yet would have a global influence almost on par with the Internet. Certainly there was the matter of new compe-tition in telecom markets and the lower prices that came with the second gen-eration, but there vas also more to this movement that just economics. Looking a bit further into the story, it is possible to discern tiNG other major forces at work during this time. The first involved a radical shift in the industrial design of the mobile phone pioneered by companies like Nokia, The second was a decision to include a simple data service in the GSM standard that would enable mobile phones to send and receive short text messages of up to 160 characters.

Recent history in this field has been deeply influenced by the Nordic countries, not only because of NMT's formative influence on the GSM standard but by the Finnish company, Nokia, for first recognizing the unique personal appeal of the mobile phone. Nokia first entered the mobile phone marketplace in the 1980s, but it has a long history in a diverse range of activities including timber and rubber industries.